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Chapter 5 

How doubt and fear, causes effects on our decisions and results 

When you have a mixture of doubt and fear it can be seen as anxiety. So how does anxiety affect and short-circuit the decision-making process? Anxiety and doubt, disengages neurons in the prefrontal cortex that are linked to decision-making. Neurons are basically the building blocks of the brain’s nervous system. 

Neuroscientists have now pinpointed a specific neuronal mechanism helping to explain how anxious worry and doubt causes disruption to decision-making processes. This of course then leads to bad decisions that affect your results. 

Decision-making is a cognitive process that makes decisions between a number of possible outcomes. This involves weighing up factors such as rewards, risk and the consequences of actions. They have found with growing evidence, that the cognitive processes of the brain involved with decision-making, on the fact that the proper functioning of the prefrontal cortex, involves specific neurons. This is within sub-regions of the prefrontal cortex. This area of the brain is located at the front of the brain behind the forehead and is the newest part of the human brain in terms of evolution. 

This area of the brain plays a primary role in the executive functions, including: calculating the consequences of risk and reward; regulating emotions; long-term planning; understanding rules; problem solving and these all involve decision-making. Anxious thoughts appear to disrupt the brain's neurons within the prefrontal cortex that are critical for us to make smart decisions. 

Regulating emotions in the prefrontal cortex when decision-making. 

In order to have a complete theory of decision-making in human rationality, you have to understand the role that emotion plays in it. Doubt, worry and fear are powerful emotions that create negative thought. Are large number of the thoughts we have are controlled by the emotions and they cause influence that sometimes completely determine the outcomes of our decisions that we make throughout the day. Remaining impartial is not necessarily possible as your emotions are the way you are defined in your thoughtful negotiations inside yourself. This is the effect of the brains reward circuit that runs through the prefrontal cortex. This is part of the system where the brain chemistry releases dopamine, which gives a feel-good factor, but also anxiety and schizophrenia. If you are prone to fear and doubt in decision-making it is because your brain is not sending this neurotransmitter to your prefrontal cortex. 

If you are not sold on the idea that emotions play a part in your decision-making. And that you are free of the emotional-bias, we are going to take a look how emotions are formed. You will then see how emotions and thoughts are transferred into an action that gives you the reward of feelings. In some of you that decision-making causes anxiety, doubt and fear as a set of feelings that make you come to a decision. Even leave you in turmoil of thought. 

Firstly, all feelings are an impact of something stimulating you from external sources. These, that are part of the psychosocial interaction of the body/brain barrier harmony of hormones and neurochemistry. This can be seen as neuroplasticity of the body/brain barrier. Whether that be a physical event or what someone has said about you or another thing or person, stimulates this barrier simultaneously. This generates stimulation in the brain's prefrontal cortex of an unfelt emotion. This then causes the body to produce responsive hormones.  

The hormones then enter the bloodstream and this then creates the physical feelings and then onto the thoughtful emotions you have. They can be either positive or negative according to your levels of the feel-good factor of dopamine in the brain and the hormones, and chiefly cortisol. 

So, the route to negativity is in the fear, worry, doubt - but positive reward as well - is firstly stimulus of the brain, then blood hormones of the body. This then leads back to those brain feelings, then back onto thoughtful emotions of hormones. In other words, the negative thoughts you have are the result of feelings given my dopamine levels in the brain, then hormones and these lead to an impact on decision-making via feelings in the prefrontal Cortex. These negative brain feelings are the inbuilt emotions of body character. They are a part of your body/brain barrier of fear and doubt about your worries and fear of negative thoughts. So, you need to change the body/brain chemistry by eating the right foods and supplements, but also retrain the body/brain barrier by using mindfulness. The brain is constantly being updated by the body and visa-versa. 

For example: when we feel fearful or doubtful of something. That fear and doubt is the release of hormones and it is the result in the brain chemistry of the 'fight or flight' response. This response gives us the feelings to react quickly or appropriate with decision-making for the preservation of self from others. The emotions of fear, worry and doubt, that can whelm up negatively, are because the condition is sudden and unconscious. Because the feelings are sudden it takes time for the changes to kick-in to the awareness of negative thought. This is the time when the natural response is to either breathe or to blink. The time when we become aware is when the hormones are entering the bloodstream and inner voice area of the throat chakra energy.  

It is not always a thoughtful reaction, because in conversation the response will trigger your reaction that could makes your decision-making process negative. This is because it is a 'flight' zone where you retreat from the 'fight' zone of the discussion and answer with negativity or a downbeat answer of doubt. That or anxiety that causes thought. 

Within the knowledge gathering of mindfulness there is a complex dance in your brain right now between the body/brain chemistry that could significantly cause an improvement in your emotional intelligence. And that includes your ability in the decision-making. This is because at present you should be in the 'fight' zone. Close your eyes, smile and just breathe, so as you enter the 'rest and digest' zone of the brain. Maybe even think about these paragraphs on regulating the emotions, by giving yourself something positive. Such as ‘I have the emotional power to change now’. 

Before you open your eyes smile and if you have it right the smile will stay. This is a change to a positive body/brain barrier that gives you positivism. It is where the inner cycle of smiling happiness, at a subconscious level, has entered the consciousness, as emotions of joy and power. This is how mindfulness works and of course in terms of Interpellation people will also see this newfound strength you have in the smile, via regulating your emotions in the psychosocial prefrontal cortex interaction of chakras energy. 

You might say: all well and good, but how does that make me understand this? Once the subconscious barrier between sleep and waking is broken with your eyes closed the benefits are not only in the short term or at this moment. In the long term the focusing you are now feeling are the result of new feelings coursing through your blood from your brain chemistry. That is how mindfulness works, in the sleep/waking cycle. It is in a state of conscious meditation that takes on the sublime levels of feelings that affect the brain.  

This pay-off is a sublime understanding of the 10 emotions, that are broad categories that have only small specifics.  Although the feeling you will now emit are more likened to how 'We' psychosocially feel and especially describe what is going on inside the psychosocial chakras energy of your body and brain via scent release and the new verbal and body language you will express if you can smile once in a while. That is in your decision-making of thoughts in the prefrontal cortex and the chakras third eye. 

When you start to see results that you are effectively utilising knowledge of emotions and feelings by smiling, this will of course take away doubt and fear from your decision making. 

To practise mindfulness further, we will take a situation that makes you have doubts or fears or worry. This time I want you focus your thinking on this something with your eyes open. This time, after you have thought of this negative emotional thought, then focus on the resultant feeling.  

Using this process, you can realise that what you are not experiencing a feeling, but an emotion of the hormones. And that was your time in a discussion of decision-making. To change those negative thoughts, think again until you can feel emotions building. At that point close your eyes and breathe deeply in through the nose and exhale through the mouth to ease anxiety. 

Problem solving and the prefrontal cortex. 

To solve a problem, we need to develop problem-solving skills. But doubting worry can get in the way of these skills. Doubtful worry can haze the mind and make the thoughts negative. Instinctively, most people are aware of how to logically solve problems when they are facing issues about decisions and results in their own explanatory style. 

Recognising a problem in the early stages before it becomes worrying. 

If a problem is not within our awareness, feeling will be felt within the body as a symptom of: 

  • Anxiety. 

  • Stressfulness. 

  • Irritability. 

  • Annoyance. 

  • Tiredness. 

All of these notions will be felt as a set of emotions that affect our decisions and results. It can even lead to the emotions causing crying for no apparent reason. The general route is enlightening the inner self, is how to resolve a problem in a complex set of one-step solutions. This is known as the heuristic technique. Described physically for example by touching a hot plate the obvious route is to just withdraw the hand. Enlightening the inner self is a more complex route that involves more in the approach by one-step actions 

In this approach if we can feel emotions and bodily symptoms as a problem, then we are running the risk of a one-step approach of getting rid of all emotions and sensations by avoiding some things totally. You need to confront situations to be able to deal with situations that cause you worry, doubt and fear about decisions and results. This is a problem-solving technique, that will improve your decision making and so your results, by finding ways of learning confrontation instead of doubtful worry. Quite often many people will totally avoid a situation, place or people to remove fear and worry. Firstly, you need to confront the issue and the feelings and secondly, form an acceptance bond in your emotions. Deep breathing will allow you to confront a situation, place or people and the feelings. If you feel stress building then your feelings are getting the better of you, so you will need to talk yourself out of the emotions by using an emotional authoritative vocal voice out loud.  This can be done at home by thinking about the up and coming meeting to allow the feelings and emotions to come through.  Once you have done this speak out loud with authority to overcome the worry, fear and doubt. This method will cause reactions in the unconscious hormones that affect decisions and so changing the results you will gain from using self-programming communication of mindfulness. 

This method uses the ‘fight’ of the brain to get the logics through to the thinking side of the prefrontal cortex processes involved in problem solving of your decisions and actions. 

Social interaction are complex problems that require a set of steps, rather than a one-step approach. The vitals of problem-solving are in the cognitive emotions from previous meetings that cause beliefs and notions to establish themselves in your thoughts and subconscious emotional body/brain barrier. If you close your eyes and think of a situation, place, group or person then you will feel emotions that needs to be thought about. These emotions may be the tensing or relaxing of the body, but quite often the feelings that need to be changed are in the facial muscles. Like frowning for instance. Frowning is confusion, mistrust or dislike for something. You need to logically think through what the emotional feelings are trying to describe to you about something. Through thinking with the eyes closed will give you better problem-solving techniques because you will be more relaxed to make important decisions in thinking. In the logic processes you will become more confident in the eyes open state because you have entered the body/brain barrier with relaxed conscious positive thoughts 

Negative fearful thoughts of doubting worry and problem-solving. 

This is when you appraise yourself because fear and worry can make you feel helpless. A sense of being able to stop helplessness by body/brain barrier thinking is crucial in problem-solving. This is present in the emotional environment from a very early age when we are starting to first play with toys that creates noise when shaken.  It gives a child a sense of 'I can do that, why?' 

This develops the problem-solving skills into more complexed sets from the ability to realise shaking the toy makes it noisy. The responses such 'asking why does it make noises?' and seeking out needs by verbalising to parents then develop. This is the seeking to express the self via verbalisation learning to create problem-solving techniques. This learns you in the early stages of life that it is okay to say what you need and how far you will push something to solve a problem. Many of the things learnt in childhood distort learning and inhibit adaptive problem-solving learning in adulthood. Childhood generates adult negative beliefs that form doubting, worrying thoughts and builds belief systems in the prefrontal cortex. 

There is a tendency in some to view problems with fearfulness, or as a negative barrier and obstacle that they will not push themselves to overcome with logical problem-solving skills. This can be seen as persistent negative worrying thoughts in some, rather than using mindfulness to view these issues as an opportunity of inner enlightenment of learning to empower themselves and overcome doubtful worry. If you have a feeling that is nagging, then ask the question 'what is bothering me right now and why?' By asking the question out loud will cause a sublime reaction in the hormones that will cause the prefrontal cortex to try resolving the issue with its problem-solving techniques. Problem-solving is a physiological action. Taking this action will allow you space to compose yourself for failures or mistakes, so making them less of a negative worrying when they do actually occur. 

Doubting ability is according to your rigidity of self-contained rules and beliefs in your decisions. 

‘What do I need to do to think about in doing that decision?’ ‘what options do I have, to achieve those results?’ This is a point in problem-solving where it is more adaptive to consider the given best choices available, rather than to find the perfect or right cause of beliefs. It is about compromising to slowly change your problem-solving skills. Quite often rules of conduct about what is nice, causes enough doubtful worry so as complaining to the boss is not a good idea. This is because you will not be seen as a nice person in your fearful and doubting thought processes. Rules and standards are made for complaint processes and so we do not want to become slaves to our own worries and concerns. 

A negative worry of visions of the: future outcomes of an event will never encourage action towards complaining of a problem in your decision-making of the prefrontal cortex. This only creates hopeless fearful worry within the inner self as thoughtfulness leading to anxiety, stress and fear about speaking out. That is the result this website will cure within you if you learn to use the mindfulness techniques. 

Fear and doubt that causes worrying doubtfulness and impacts our decisions and results. 

Within the fear response brain, areas involved are the amygdala, limbic system of which the prefrontal cortex is part of. And also involved in these systems is the 'flight' response of the sympathetic nerve. These areas of the brain detect possibilities and then send signals which generate the feeling and fear emotions. These are what set off an avoidance decision to a situation, place or to people.  

Unlike the rational brain, the emotions can trigger various instinctual behaviours and attitudes that cause you to make irrational choices that the prefrontal cortex tries to make sense of. The amygdala will be involved in this thought as the fear and doubt factor. Each emotion is picked up by the limbic system of the brain to deal with emotionally fearful worrying contingencies. Fear is an emotion switched on by the amygdala and this can create worrying and fearful images in the imagination. This prepares the body for 'flight' by signalling avoidance activity. This causes either thoughtfulness or directs the muscles to flee a situation or freeze in fear thought. Fear works in an instant on the hormones as it is a primordial sense of 'flight’ that has direct responses to the body/brain barriers instincts. It will instantly send you into a tense mode causing stress and fear at a situation where a decision needs to be made.  

This will only exasperate your worry, doubt and fear when the danger of making the decision becomes unavoidable. In situations like this, the fear signals can inhibit thoughtfulness.  

Meanwhile panic and fear sets in for the body to flee. At this point the prefrontal cortex may kick-in to try to get you defending yourself with doubtful, irrational thoughts or of logical conversation that only comes out as gibberish.  

At this point the subconscious may start to look for ways for you to flee the situation or the amygdala will flash fearful images into your imagination. A lack of escaping the decision-making will only add to the fear and doubt. 

Fear can be triggered initially by the amygdala and is nature's most primordial instinct mechanism in decision-making of survival. A large part of fear is the response built from early childhood and how it made you into the person you are, when you need to make a decision. Fear of decisions generates a chain of biologically effecting events in the body/brain barrier. 

  • Brains signals. 

  • Hormones rush through the blood. 

  • Feelings start to evolve to reaching a decision. 

  • Emotions cause the state of fear and doubt at the resultant outcome. 

Fear begins with the startle response in the 'flight' system of the sympathetic nerve that then sends signals to the amygdala that causes a fear, doubt or worry response of thought. Fear leads to many subconscious reactional behaviours that if go unnoticed will cause this cycle of events within you. Remember to learn mindfulness meditation of your reactions by focusing your attention before placing yourself in the situation of an important decision. Mindfulness is self-awareness training and is a key-factor in dealing with fear and doubt at decisions you might have to make in society or at work. Preplanning a meeting with mindfulness meditation is the key to getting the fear in control, and not controlling the event. 

An evolutionary mechanism early man used for fear. 

In today's society fear is not really a necessity, but the primitive mind has now replaced its fear-factor with doubtfulness in the amygdala. The amygdala becomes sensitive to sensory signals, such as vocal tones and body language. These affect your decision-making with doubts that were created in early childhood from learning by listening and watching. In childhood fear still exists. In typical experiments for the amygdala - which are extensive on animals - a rat is exposed to a painful foot shock and this is accompanied by a sound. This is known as conditioning in psychology. 

Later on, when the sound is played on its own, the rats amygdala will cause signals and the rat responds with fear factors. This conditioning is seen to develop experiences in rats that develop a 'speed dial circuit' where the rat instantly responds to the related signal of sound with instant fear. Like tones of voice and the authoritative voices that cause your doubt or fear is because to some vocal signals you are oversensitive by psychosocial conditioning. 

When receiving fear or doubt signals from the amygdala the limbic system of the hypothalamus acts instinctively to control the hormones and autonomic functions of the body. The breathing, blood flow and the brain are instantly affected, hence why breathing techniques of mindfulness are so important. The signals sent from the amygdala dilate the pupils and increase the brain's activity. This is also why your mouth becomes dry when you have fearful worry. If you become to a panic state during fear signals you might start to hyperventilate. 

These signals from the amygdala travel to the adrenal gland. This produces cortisol, which is the stress enhancing chemical, in the body/brain barrier. This causes the body to produce more glucose to the additional fuel needed. And that is to cope with the potential stress that doubt at a decision that is looming closer, rather than fear of being murdered. The amygdala, which has a left and right side, triggers a chain of biological reactions and these engulf you in fear and doubt at decision-making. This all happens before the consciousness can assess a situation for you to make a decision. These are the triggers of the primordial instinctive brain, which tries its best to cope and overcome career and social decision-making. All this doubt you have is because the mind is preparing you to freeze in doubtful thought, at your point in the conversation, affecting the results in your career and society. Even worse this is irrational because this part of the brain is designed to flee in terror at an animal rushing at you to kill and eat you!  

Long-term effects of fear. 

Fear from the amygdala and a lacking of escape routes from fear factors leads to insistent anxiety disorders of mental health. It also raises blood pressure and heart rate over the course of time. Such conditions are said to be related to fatigue and lethargy, chest pain, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, nausea and headaches. Escalating fear factors can signal the anxiety condition of panic attacks. This has symptoms which are similar in nature to having a heart attack. Anxiety from fear has been linked to the health issues, if suffered for years, of: allergies; migraines; thyroid disease; stomach ulcers and arthritis. 

Acquired and inherit issues with fear and doubt. 

The amygdala can trigger fear and doubt signals in your body/brain barrier. These drive your decisions and results in your career and societal behaviour. The first of these is the inherit set of circuits that identify historical events of childhood growing, about vocal and body language doubt and worry, at decision-making in adulthood from parent and family learning. The second groupage of acquired is LTP (long term potentiation) circuits of the rats, which learn to fire in identifying like childhood conditioning, from learning, that affects adulthood.  

The last acquired group of triggers is when the system is unable to consciously identify the impact of an event. That may be due to feelings and emotions getting in the way in a busy scheduled day. This is course builds up because thought is not possible about the subject matter in the workload or societal hubbub. 

Over the course of your lifetime, the amygdala builds up additional sensitivity to emotional pain in the body/brain barrier of feelings and biological chemistry. Emotional pain that may have been caused by the loss of loved ones or friends, painful confrontations, the loss of societal status. or even through societal rejection from a person or group. Those are known as mirror neurons that trigger emotional pain, that all this leads to doubt triggers. This is on seeing the psychosocial emotional pain in others. Hence the thoughts incurred at the moody person that works in the office that other workers always mention to you. Whenever these emotional pains have been experienced, the amygdala stores the information that was present in the scene as mirror neurons. This is what causes mirror neurons that triggers your fear and doubt to think at unnecessary and unfounded illogical reasoning moments. Much like the person you thought suddenly about later, with the moody or had sharp tones directed at you, when the true reason had nothing to do with you.  

People suffer fear and doubts about being ridiculed, failing at something. Like mirror neurons are triggers created from childhood, an example is if a person was left alone, or got lost from their parents whilst out shopping, the adult may fear being alone or being in crowded places. 

The startle response. 

The startle response is a fear giving factor. Being startled has the fastest response in the brain (20 milliseconds). This is triggered by the Amygdala and in modern times leads to thoughtful doubt via the prefrontal cortex response to still the onset of fear. In the reasoning centre that is the cortex fear is replaced by the natural response circuit giving thoughts and doubtful confusion. The emotions and feelings have received hormones that in evolutionary terms say you should be fearful. In the modern world doubt is the new evolutionary term where the amygdala and cortex create fear as thoughts of doubting. Mere movements, images, or sounds cause these two areas to trigger the doubt and thought of the psychosocial startle response.  

This reflex stems from childhood, but as an adult fear has been replaced with the natural process of thinking. Instead of fear: doubt and worry has taken its place. So normal daily routines trigger startling and then doubtfully worrying thoughts occur. 

The startle signal is from the amygdala and that then activates the sympathetic nerve response of 'fight or flight'. Those prone to worry and doubt will be triggered into thoughtfulness where the emotions can run riot about something that has insignificantly psychosocially startled them. It is a by-product of the modern world that thought processes are easily startled into action. This is because the sympathetic nerve of the body/brain barrier heightens emotional arousal.  

Those who are strong in character, such as your boss will have cortical signals that cause the parasympathetic nerve of 'rest and digest' and its ‘ignorance’ to carry on taking the scene and narration into the processing centre of the prefrontal cortex of decision-making. This is where mindfulness works to dampen down the emotional state as a calming effect.  

Those that do not have this luxury will have a 'fight' that goes on within of startled and doubtful worry. Or they will have a 'yes boss' syndrome where they easily agree with anything rather than suffer the doubt. 

Whilst physical danger was forever present in the primordial world of humans, it is much less relevant today. Whilst fear is necessary in wilderness locations of a lion in the vicinity, fear response triggers are unhealthy and unsuitable for the modern person that has a social and working career. When faced with problems at work the startle response leading to fear has been replaced with self-doubt. Breathing deeply and regularly causes the parasympathetic nerve to keep the body/brain emotionally sturdy. This is because it is a state of response of 'rest and digest' more information in the prefrontal cortex. Or a decision to remain ‘ignorant’ to the body notions of the psychosocial other. 

Without the deep breathing regularly the 'fight or flight' is the constant mode and the natural response that you become easily startled into thoughtful doubt or worry. When decision-making is necessary you may overthink and that causes the decisions to have mixed doubtful feelings and emotions.  

Here the mind can become cluttered with thoughts that can overtake you into over-doubting about a certain subject, even cause the processes to worry excessively about something menial, such as the moody person, or the grumpy boss. 

Subconscious avoidance of doubt and fear. 

In an instant a creature of the wild can sense danger. Its mind can identify immediately that action needs to be taken. It does not have the skills of the human mind for doubting when danger is present and so it immediately looks for a rock to hide under. Fear happens to be a creative process. It searches the subconscious mind for ways that will escape pain. In human terms that pain and fear factor of the wilderness has been replaced with doubt and emotional trauma. Emotional trauma such as someone raising their voice to you at the wrong time can trigger the startle effect into a cascade of worrying doubtful thoughts about why they were so harsh towards you, when in fact they had argued with their partner before coming to work. That is the problem with doubt instead of fear because the thought process is easily startled into action. The natural response to fear is to gain an aggressive response which is not acceptable in a debate. 

Your impulsive thoughts, when triggered by the fear/doubt factor might not give you any inclination towards any conscious awareness of the particular emotions of trauma until they build to a point of worrying sessions. Emotional trauma triggers in social situations are triggers from tonal accent in the vast array of vocal tones that include personal childhood chemistry in you of disgust, sadness shame, guilt, embarrassment, contempt and annoyance.  

Fear/doubt can cause a person that is in emotional levels of these modern traumas of fear, not to take part in a conversation. Fear/doubt of experiencing these emotional sensations, may cause a person to avoid challenges in work or society. 

Psychosocial links. 

Psychosocial is the sensory input from sublime peripheral interaction from sounds in the vocal tones and body language interaction between things and people. Fear/doubt is triggered in the amygdala because of nerve junctions that develop a special sensitivity to those personal psychosocial sensory signals. Even faint sounds from across the room have a sensory reaction towards you in terms of psychosocial. 

The embodied state of psychosocial self builds a character that is built of the course of the present and past of life. This character has peripheral signals that cause worry and doubt at key signals in vocal tones that everyone displays. When psychosocial signals build the amygdala overloads in fear/doubt, a decision-making process begins. That is either ‘rest and digest’ further or that the overload then causes ‘fight or flight’ overload into fearful worrying thoughts. The mindfulness route at this time is fast blinking and deep breathing that allows the body to stay in ‘fight’ or its sympathetic nerve harmony of ‘disassociation’. Within the harmony of these two terms the fear/doubt response in the harmony allows for the hormones that create the emotional response of thought to stay calm and relaxed towards psychosocial sublime peripheral stimulus, by not producing cortisol and dopamine. 

Biological chemical factor links. 

Richard L Huganir – a professor of neurosciences - discovered in creatures that a timed manipulation of a protein, relating to regulating synaptic plasticity in the amygdala, can remove the fear response. He did this by managing to find an unusual protein. This appeared within the amygdala of animals, where conditioning to sound and shocks to the feet were used.  

That protein remained only for a few days, but appeared to strengthen the fear circuit within the creatures in their amygdala. When this protein was eliminated, during the time the protein was usually present, the creatures completely lost those conditioned fear memories. A combining of behavioural and medicament therapy aimed at that protein may one day be used to help people that suffer fear induced illness such as panic attacks.  

Researchers in Zurich also found that the hormone oxytocin had relativity towards stress and this also reduced the activity in the amygdala. This could be very beneficial in research as stress is a character mode that can lead to fearful worrying thoughts in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. 

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